Blog

Exodus 31-33

?#?OTin52? Our reading today is Exodus, chapters 31-33:

XXXI. The Calling of the Tabernacle Craftsmen (Exodus 31).

• God announces to Moses on Mt. Sinai the calling of Bezalel Tribe of
Judah) and Oholiab (Tribe of Dan), the primary contractors for building the
Tabernacle.
• These Spirit-filled men are extremely gifted, skilled and artistic.
• God also gave the ability to able men to build the furnishings of the
Tabernacle, the weaving of all priestly garments, and the preparation of
oil and incense for its use in the Holy Place.
• The observance of the weekly Sabbath (vv. 12-18).
• The Sabbath is a solemn and holy day of rest to the Lord for it is a
memorial to God’s power and example.
• God gives Moses the two tablets of the Ten Commandments, written with His
finger.

XXXII. The Worship of the Golden Calf and Its Consequences (Exodus 32).

• While Moses was on the mountain speaking with God for forty days the
Israelites became restless.
• Ironically, Moses starts his descent down the mountain at the very moment
the Israelites surmise that he is dead.
• They approach Aaron and appeal to him to make gods for them to worship.
• Aaron doesn’t hesitate and tells the Israelites to bring him their gold
and from its casts a giant golden calf, strikingly similar to the images in
Egypt. The Israelites then make revelry around it.
• The contrast could not have been more stark – between worship that God
commanded and regulated and idolatry that man manufactured. This is a clear
violation of the first commandment.
• The worship of the golden calf involved blasphemy, idolatry, syncretism
(worship of images with burnt offerings and sacrifices).
• God’s wrath was kindled and He threatens to destroy the Israelites and
start over with Moses.
• Moses intercedes for the Israelites on the basis of the covenant He
established with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (vv. 7-14).
• Joshua is with Moses as he descends the mountain and he perceived the
noise from the camp was a war cry.
• Moses knows otherwise, and he takes the tablets written by God and
smashes them in anger.
• He burns the calf, grinds it up into powder, mixes the gold-dust with
water, and forces the Israelites to drink it.
• Moses confronts Aaron who blames the people with a lame excuse, in effect
saying: “I threw their gold into the fire, and out came this calf!”
• Moses asks the people, “Who is on the Lord’s side?” drawing a line in the
sand. The Levites (the tribe of Levi) ally with Moses and are appointed to
execute God’s vengeance (vv. 25-29).
• About 3,000 Israelites are put to death by the Levites, who are then
appointed to serve the Lord.
• Moses pleads the people’s case with God, even offering his own life for
their sin.
• God vows to hold each person responsible for what they have done but
continue to lead Moses.
• God sends a plague down on the Israelites for their disobedience.

XXXIII. Moses Pleads His Case before God and Makes an Audacious Request
(Exodus 33).

• God tells Moses that He can no longer accompany him into the land for
somewhere along the way He would consume this stiff-necked people (vv. 1-3).
• Moses informs the Israelites and the people mourn for their sin (vv. 4-6).
• God visits Moses in the Tent of Meeting and speaks to him as friend to
friend. Verses 12-23 records this famous and amazing dialogue between God
and Moses.
• Moses effectively argues that unless God accompanies His people they
might as well not go at all.
• Moses then asks God for the privilege of seeing His glory.
• God condescends and agrees to show Moses, not His face which no one can
see and live, but the backside of His glory.

Jesus in the Old Testament

• Moses, in his finest hour, offers himself as an atonement for the
people’s sins, but Jesus is the One (and the only One) who could and did
make atonement for us because He alone is without sin.
• While the sin of the Israelites placed in jeopardy the presence of God,
Jesus promises to always be with us (cf. Matthew 29:20).



Exodus 29-30

?#?OTin52? Our reading today is Exodus, chapters 29-30:

XXIX. The Ordination of Priests (Exodus 29).

• The consecration or setting apart of the priests to serve God occurred
over a seven-day period involving detailed preparations for a holy
sacrifice (vv. 1-3), the washing of water (v. 4), the presentation of their
garments, and the anointing of oil (vv. 5-9), followed by the sacrifice
itself (vv. 10-37).
• The extensive nature of the ordination process showed that the priests
needed atonement as much as anyone else.
• The blood of the sacrifice was applied to the ear, hand and foot implying
total consecration. They were to hear from God, serve God, and walk with
God daily.
• Instructions are also given for the daily sacrifices offered to the Lord
before the Tabernacle (vv. 38-42).
• All of these details are to be followed in perpetuity.
• The chapter closes with a powerful reminder of why all of this was done:
so that God could dwell with His people and that they would know that He is
YHWH who rescued them out of Egypt.

Exodus XXX. Instruction for Worship in the Holy Sanctuary (Exodus 30).

• The Altar of Incense (18”x18”x36”). It is where the priests would offer
daily prayers (vv. 1-10). Like the other pieces it was intended to be
mobile and carried by poles. It was placed in front the the mercy seat.
• The incense was to be burned both morning and night, symbolizing constant
intercession.
• Sanctuary or Census Tax: paying the annual half-shekel (a flat tax) of
those 20 and above symbolized the Israelites redemption from Egypt and it
also funded the daily maintenance of the Tabernacle (vv. 11-16).
• Bronze Basin: located in the courtyard between the tent of meeting and
the altar and used for ritual cleansing (vv. 17-21).
• Anointing Oil and Sacred Incense (vv. 22-38). The oil was used to
consecrate the furniture, utensils and priests.

Jesus in the Old Testament

• Jesus is our wholly qualified High Priest who was already pure, clothed,
and empowered for His work of atonement (cf. Hebrews 10:5-10).
• We experience spiritually what the priests underwent physically. The
blood of Jesus atones for our sins, we are clothed with the garments of His
righteousness, and we belong to Him by the sealing of His blood.
• Jesus is our High Priest who offers continual intercession for us in
heaven. Hebrews 7:25 says He lives to do this!



Exodus 27-28

?#?OTin52? Our reading today is Exodus, chapters 27-28:

XXVII. The Bronze Altar and Courtyard Surrounding the Tabernacle (Exodus
27).

• The Bronze Altar for burnt offerings (90”x 90”x 54”) was made of acacia
wood according to the design shown to Moses by God. It was located in the
courtyard in front of the Tabernacle. There were horns at each of the four
corners overlaid with bronze and all its utensils were also made with
bronze. The Altar was also designed to be made mobile and carried with
poles (vv. 1-8).
• The perimeter of the Tabernacle was surrounded by a courtyard (vv. 9-19),
an open area surrounding the holy objects inside the Tabernacle. Each side
of the courtyard has its own special design and instructions.
• The common Israelite could gather in the courtyard.
• The “feel” as one entered the courtyard was an aromatic space with the
wind rippling along the sides of the tent.
• The gate of the court was 30 feet long.
• Aaron and his sons were to tend constant flame of the Golden Lampstand,
placed outside the veil, with olive oil provided by the worshippers (vv.
20-21).
• See the attached accurate and helpful image of the Tabernacle and the
courtyard.

XXVIII. The Wardrobe of the Priests and their Role as Representatives of
the People (Exodus 28).

• This section deals with the Aaronic priest hood, its responsibilities and
attire. Serving as a priest was a dignified responsibility with serious
obligations. The dignity of priests was reflected in garments consisting of
a breastpiece, an ephod, robe, coat, turban and sash.
• The apron-like ephod had stone shoulder pieces engraved with the name of
the Twelve Tribes. The priest was to represent the people before God.
• The breastpiece (vv. 15-30) patterned after the ephod consisted of 12
stones representing the Twelve Tribes.
• It was called the breastpiece of judgment because it held the Urim and
Thummim, used by the High Priest to cast lots to discern God’s will for the
people (v. 30).
• The High Priest’s robe was a seamless blue and decorated along the men
with golden bells.
• These bells could be heard outside the Most Holy Place indicating whether
the priest was still alive when he went before God’s presence.
• The turban was engraved with the words, “Holy to the Lord.”
• The coats, sashes and caps were designed to be both beautiful and
indicate a man set apart for serving the glory of God.
• Right down to the undergarments! see the attached visual.

Jesus in the Old Testament

• God wanted all of His people to be priests with full access into His
presence but that would not happen until Jesus finished His work on the
cross (Hebrews 10:19-25).
• As the High Priest carried the Twelve Tribes over his heart so Jesus, our
High Priest, carries us over His heart and He represents us before the
throne of God.
[image: Paul Steven Beck’s photo.]



Exodus 25-26

?#?OTin52? Our reading today is Exodus, chapter 25-26:

XXV. The Furnishings inside the Tabernacle: The Ark of the Covenant, The
Table and the Golden Lampstands (Exodus 25).

• Exodus 25 marks the beginning of the detailed instructions Moses received
for building the Tabernacle, the sanctuary where God will meet with His
people.
• God gives Moses a catalogue of materials the Israelites may bring as
free-will offerings (Verses 1-7) for building the furniture that will go
inside it.
• The design of the Tabernacle will follow the exact pattern God showed
Moses on the mountain.
• The Ark of the Covenant (45”x27”x27”) is to be made of acacia wood and
overlaid with royal gold. It will symbolize the throne of God.
• It is intended to be mobile and carried by poles.
• On the top of the Ark will be the mercy seat (verses 17-22) overlaid with
gold and with golden cherubim at either end with their wings outstretched.
The blood of the covenant wold be sprinkled on the mercy seat.
• The Table (36”x18”x45”) for the bread of the Presence (verses 23-30) will
be made of acacia wood. It symbolizes God’s presence and His provision for
His people’s needs. Bread will be set on the Table regularly. It will also
be mobile and carried by poles.
• The pure gold six-branched Lampstand (verses 31-40) symbolizes the light
of God.
• The cups of the lampstand should resemble “almond blossoms.”
• There will be seven lampstands constructed after the design that God
showed Moses on Sinai.
• An aesthetic beauty will mark the design and furnishings of the
Tabernacle.

XXVI. The Design and Structure of the Tabernacle (Exodus 26).

• The Tabernacle is a tent consisting of ten curtains made of twined linen
and yarn.
• The curtains were 504” long x 72” wide. Two sets of 5 will be coupled to
one another.
• Eleven curtains made of goat’s hair will form the covering. The length
and width of each curtain will be 540” x 72”.
• The framing will be made of acacia wood and comes with detailed
instructions.
• There are also detailed instructions for the coverings and the veils or
curtains.
• There will be one sacred veil that separates the two spaces – the Holy
Place from the Most Holy Place (verses 31-35).
• The Ark of the Covenant with its Mercy Seat will be in the Most Holy
Place with the Ten Commandments inside.
• The purpose of the veil is to show that access to God was limited.

Jesus in the Old Testament

• The Tabernacle shows God’s desire to dwell with His redeemed people and
it points to the even greater reality of Jesus, the Word become flesh, who
tabernacled among us (John 1:14).

• The sin of Israel was atoned through the blood of a sacrificial
substitute and the blood was sprinkled on the mercy seat and its points to
Jesus as our sacrificial substitute whose blood was shed at the cross and
atoned for our sins forever.

• The Table and the Bread of Presence points to Jesus is the true Bread (“I
Am the Bread of Life”) who came down from the Father and who truly sustains
and nurtures His people.

• The Golden Lampstand points to Jesus, the true light (“I Am the Light of
the World”) who reveals the glory of God.



Exodus 19-21

?#?OTin52? Our reading today is Exodus, chapters 19-21:

XIX. The Israelites Before Mt. Sinai (Exodus 19).

• Three months after leaving Egypt, the Israelites arrive at Sinai.
• Moses goes up the mountain to meet with God and YHWH affirms his covenant
with the people of Israel. Having rescued them from Egypt, He will now make
them a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.
• God will speak to Moses in a thick cloud so that the people will know.
• He tells Moses to call the people and to prepare to assemble before Mt.
Sinai but they were to be careful not to go up onto the mountain or touch
it lest they die.
• There was fire, smoke, loud trumpet blasts and a thick cloud and the
people trembled.
• God spoke to Moses in the thunder and invited him to the top of the
mountain.
• Moses went down to the people and said that their access to God is
restricted and then returned to the top of the mountain with Aaron.

XX. God’s Law for a New Nation (Exodus 20).

• God gives to Moses Ten Words.
• Commandment One: “You shall have no other gods before me” (v. 3). The
Hebrew seems to suggest that the better word is “besides.” “Before” seems
to imply other gods but “besides” implies an exclusive relationship.
• Commandment Two: “You shall not make for yourself a carved image” (vs.
4-6).
• Commandment Three: “You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in
vain” (v. 7). God’s name is not to be used flippantly.
• Commandment Four: “Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy (vs. 8-11).
• Commandment Five: “Honor your father and your mother, that your days may
be long in the land that the Lord your God is giving you” (v. 12). You
cannot have a functional society that standardizes parental disrespect.
• Commandment Six: “You shall not murder” (v. 13).
• Commandment Seven: “You shall not commit adultery” (v.14).
• Commandment Eight: “You shall not steal” (v. 15).
• Commandment Nine: “You shall not bear false witness against your
neighbor” (v. 16).
• Commandment Ten: “You shall not covet your neighbor’s house; you shall
not covet your neighbor’s wife, or his male servant or his female servant,
or his ox, or his donkey, or anything that is your neighbor’s” (v. 17).
• After God gives His Ten Words, the people are terrified and tell Moses
that he should be the one talking to God.
• Moses explains that their fear of God is meant to keep them from sin.
• Altar Laws (vs. 22-26): God prescribes provision for Israel’s sin through
sacrifices. God makes it clear that He doesn’t want any gold or silver
idols around. Instead, they are to build an altar and use it to make
sacrifices and offerings to Him.

XXI. Specific Laws that Manage the Details of Life (Exodus 21)

• God sets down laws for almost everything to ensure equal justice in
Israel. No one was to take matters into his or her own hands.
• Slave Laws (21:1-11).
• Male Hebrew slaves are to serve six years; children born to slaves remain
slaves. Some slaves, if they prefer, can be enslaved for life. Female
slaves are to be treated with respect.
• Violence Laws (21:12-27).
• Involuntary murder is not punishable by death but voluntary murder,
kidnapping, matricide, and patricide rise to the death penalty. Injuring a
pregnant woman and inducing miscarriage bears a financial penalty.
• Property Laws (21:28-36).

Jesus in the Old Testament

• In contrast with the old covenant where access to God is limited, through
the new covenant in Christ we are invited to draw near (Hebrews 12:19-28).

• The Law, captured in the Ten Words, shows us our need for Christ (Romans
3:20; Galatians 3:24)



Exodus 19-21

?#?OTin52? Our reading today is Exodus, chapters 19-21:

XIX. The Israelites Before Mt. Sinai (Exodus 19).

• Three months after leaving Egypt, the Israelites arrive at Sinai.
• Moses goes up the mountain to meet with God and YHWH affirms his covenant
with the people of Israel. Having rescued them from Egypt, He will now make
them a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.
• God will speak to Moses in a thick cloud so that the people will know.
• He tells Moses to call the people and to prepare to assemble before Mt.
Sinai but they were to be careful not to go up onto the mountain or touch
it lest they die.
• There was fire, smoke, loud trumpet blasts and a thick cloud and the
people trembled.
• God spoke to Moses in the thunder and invited him to the top of the
mountain.
• Moses went down to the people and said that their access to God is
restricted and then returned to the top of the mountain with Aaron.

XX. God’s Law for a New Nation (Exodus 20).

• God gives to Moses Ten Words.
• Commandment One: “You shall have no other gods before me” (v. 3). The
Hebrew seems to suggest that the better word is “besides.” “Before” seems
to imply other gods but “besides” implies an exclusive relationship.
• Commandment Two: “You shall not make for yourself a carved image” (vs.
4-6).
• Commandment Three: “You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in
vain” (v. 7). God’s name is not to be used flippantly.
• Commandment Four: “Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy (vs. 8-11).
• Commandment Five: “Honor your father and your mother, that your days may
be long in the land that the Lord your God is giving you” (v. 12). You
cannot have a functional society that standardizes parental disrespect.
• Commandment Six: “You shall not murder” (v. 13).
• Commandment Seven: “You shall not commit adultery” (v.14).
• Commandment Eight: “You shall not steal” (v. 15).
• Commandment Nine: “You shall not bear false witness against your
neighbor” (v. 16).
• Commandment Ten: “You shall not covet your neighbor’s house; you shall
not covet your neighbor’s wife, or his male servant or his female servant,
or his ox, or his donkey, or anything that is your neighbor’s” (v. 17).
• After God gives His Ten Words, the people are terrified and tell Moses
that he should be the one talking to God.
• Moses explains that their fear of God is meant to keep them from sin.
• Altar Laws (vs. 22-26): God prescribes provision for Israel’s sin through
sacrifices. God makes it clear that He doesn’t want any gold or silver
idols around. Instead, they are to build an altar and use it to make
sacrifices and offerings to Him.

XXI. Specific Laws that Manage the Details of Life (Exodus 21)

• God sets down laws for almost everything to ensure equal justice in
Israel. No one was to take matters into his or her own hands.
• Slave Laws (21:1-11).
• Male Hebrew slaves are to serve six years; children born to slaves remain
slaves. Some slaves, if they prefer, can be enslaved for life. Female
slaves are to be treated with respect.
• Violence Laws (21:12-27).
• Involuntary murder is not punishable by death but voluntary murder,
kidnapping, matricide, and patricide rise to the death penalty. Injuring a
pregnant woman and inducing miscarriage bears a financial penalty.
• Property Laws (21:28-36).

Jesus in the Old Testament

• In contrast with the old covenant where access to God is limited, through
the new covenant in Christ we are invited to draw near (Hebrews 12:19-28).

• The Law, captured in the Ten Words, shows us our need for Christ (Romans
3:20; Galatians 3:24).



Exodus 16-18

?#?OTin52? Our reading today is Exodus, chapters 16-18:

XVI. God Provides for the Israelites their Daily Bread (Exodus 16).
• The Israelites arrive in the wilderness of Sin (eastern shore of Red Sea)
famished, nostalgic for Egypt, and grumbling against Moses and Aaron.

• “Sin” is related to “Sinai” and may have been a reference to an ancient
deity of the moon.

• Moses cries out to God and God tells Moses that He will provide daily
food for the Israelites. However, they will not be able to take more than a
daily supply.

• Every sixth day, God will give them twice as much food, so that they can
rest on the seventh day (the Sabbath).

• God’s provision of food from heaven was a test to see if they would walk
in His law or not.

• Their grumbling was also wring because it wasn’t against Moses and Aaron
but YHWH.

• In the evening quail covered the ground.

• Then in the morning, after the dew dried up, there appeared on the ground
a fine flaky substance, and they asked one another, “What is it?”

• “Manna,” (‘what is it’) was like coriander seed, white, and with the
taste of wafers made with honey.

• The Israelites have trouble following God’s instructions to finish all
the manna each day. When they try to save some it bred worms and smelled
awful.

• When they saved some on the the sixth day, it kept for the Sabbath, but
some people went out on the seventh day to gather anyway, even though God
said it was a day of rest.

• God rebukes His people for failing to follow His instructions.

• God also has Moses and Aaron save some manna in a jar as a reminder of
God’s provision through all their forty years in the wilderness.

XVII. The Israelites Test the Lord Again and God Gives them Victory Against
the Amalekites (Exodus 17).

• As they moved in stages through the wilderness arriving in Rephidim, the
Israelites complain some more. This time, it’s about the lack of water in
the desert.

• They quarrel against Moses and test the Lord.

• Moses asks God for help again, and God shows Moses a rock. Moses hits the
rock with his staff and water gushes out.

• They renamed the place Massah (testing) and Meribah (quarreling).

• Then the Amalekites attack the Israelites. Moses chooses Joshua to be his
military commander and he leads the fight against the enemy.

• As long as Moses holds his staff up on his outpost overlooking the
battle, the Israelites win. So Moses sits on a stone while Aaron and Hur
hold his arms up through the entire battle and the Israelites are
victorious.

• The Amalekites become Israel’s mortal enemies.

XVIII. Jethro and the Israelite Court System (Exodus 18)

• Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, comes for a visit. He brings Moses’ wife
Zipporah, along with his sons Gershom and Eliezer.

• Moses fills Jethro in on all that God has done for the Israelites, and
Jethro is amazed.

• Jethro, Moses, and Aaron worship and eat together as Jethro offers a
sacrifice, having come to believe that YHWH is the great God.

• During the day Moses assumes the role of judge and settles the disputes
for all 600,00 plus Israelites.

• Jethro tells him that he will wear himself out if he keeps this up. His
counsel was to appoint chiefs, men of character and integrity, who will
apply God’s laws to their disputes. Moses would still oversee the hard
cases.

• Moses agrees and Jethro returns home.

Jesus in the Old Testament

• Manna is a picture of Jesus (John 6:30ff). While the manna in the
wilderness came from heaven but could only sustain their physical lives,
Jesus came from heaven to give us spiritual life.

• The rock, from which the water poured out, is a picture of Jesus who was
struck for us (1 Corinthians 10:4).

• Just as Moses interceded for the Israelites in battle, so Jesus
intercedes for us in heaven. The battle is always the Lord’s.



42773

Come join us for worship this Sunday.

Pastor Paul will continue his series *The Sent Church* with his message
“Becoming a Sending Church.”

His passages will be Acts 11:19-30 and 13:1-3.

Service times are 9 and 11 am.



Exodus 13-15

?#?OTin52? Our reading today is Exodus, chapters 13-15.

XIII. God Leads His People into the Wilderness (Exodus 13).

• Moses reminds the Israelites what a their liberation from Egypt was, and
proclaims that the Passover festival will occur annually to commemorate
their redemption from Egypt.

• Circumcision is established as a way to mark God’s covenant with His
people.

• The Israelites’ journey to Canaan will be more a zigzag than a straight
line because the Philistines, who are located along the coast, are blocking
their access into Canaan.

• In order to avoid a war with the Philistines, they go the long way around.

• God leads His people by a pillar of cloud during the day and a pillar of
fire by night.

• Moses takes the bones of Joseph with him because Joseph had asked years
earlier to be moved with his people.

XIV. The Final Contest Between God and Pharaoh with the Parting of the Red
Sea (Exodus 14).

• God tells Moses to take the Israelites in an unusual direction so that
Pharaoh will think they’re wandering around aimlessly.

• God will harden Pharaoh’s heart so that he regrets letting the Israelites
go.

• Pharaoh decides to pursue the Israelites with his army, cavalry and 600
chosen chariots.

• The Israelites see the Egyptians in pursuit and start to panic. This will
be the first of many times they said they should have stayed in Egypt.

• Moses tells the people they will see God fight for them.

• God tells Moses to stretch out his hand and divide the sea.

• God’s angel keeps the Egyptian army at bay while the sea opens up to
create a passageway. The Israelites pass through the sea on dry land.

• The Egyptians follow the Israelites, but God closes the sea on them once
the Israelites are safely on the other side.

• The Egyptians all drown.

XV. The Song of Moses and the Song of Miriam (Exodus 15).

• Moses and the Israelites sing a triumphant song to God for their
deliverance.

• The song speaks about the character of God and also celebrates the
destruction of the Canaanites – before it even happens.

• Miriam sings a song of her own.

• As they’re traveling in the desert, the Israelites are unable to find
fresh water. They complain to Moses, who asks God for help.

• Moses throws a piece of wood into the brackish water, and it becomes
sweet.

• God makes a rule that if the Israelites do right by God’s rules, they
won’t be punished with the diseases the Egyptians got.

Jesus in the Old Testament

• The passing through the Red Sea and the Israelites’ deliverance from
slavery, foreshadows God redeeming His people through the death of Jesus.

• The Song of Moses is a song of redemption, a fitting song for those
redeemed by Christ for it boasts in what God has done.



Exodus 10-12

?#?OTin52? Our reading today is Exodus, chapters 10-12:

X. Plagues 8 and 9: Locusts and Darkness (Exodus 10).

• The purpose of the plagues is so that Moses may know that YHWH is God and
he will be able to tell his sons and grandsons all he saw that God has done.
• Moses and Aaron threaten to unleash swarms of locusts on Egypt if Pharaoh
refuses to let the Israelites go.
• Pharaoh’s advisers tell him to release the Israelites because they’ve
ruined the land.
• Pharaoh asks Moses and Aaron how many Israelites they intend to take into
the wilderness to worship.
• Moses and Aaron tell Pharaoh that they’re taking everyone!
• Pharaoh says something like, “You’re crazy if I let you taken your
children. Only your men can go. You’re up to no good.”
• So the locusts arrive and devour every green thing in Egypt.
• Pharaoh says he’ll let everyone go if the locusts go, so Moses asks God
to send the locusts away.
• God again hardens Pharaoh’s heart and he reneges on his promise.
• God unleashes a plague of darkness that blankets Egypt. It was “a
darkness to be felt.”
• This time Pharaoh tells Moses he can taken the children but leave the
livestock.
• Moses tells Pharaoh he will need all their animals in order to prepare
for their sacrifice to God.
• Pharaoh tells Moses if he ever sees him again, he’ll kill him.
• The plague of darkness is not lifted.

XI. The Tenth and Final Plague Threatened (Exodus 11).

• God tells Moses one more plague is coming and then he will let you go.
• God instructs Moses that the Israelites should all ask their neighbors
for silver and gold.
• Moses tells Pharaoh that at midnight God will take the life of every
Egyptian firstborn (human and animal).
• Pharaoh refuses to let the people go after God hardens his heart again.

XII. The Memorial Day of Passover, the Tenth Plague Strikes and the Death
of the Egyptian Firstborn Occurs (Exodus 12).

• God creates a new calendar for the Israelites and establishes the Lord’s
Passover, a memorial day to be kept in perpetuity.
• The Feast of Passover is to be preceded by the Feast of unleavened bread
where every trace of leaven is to be removed from the home.
• On the tenth day of the first month a spotless, year old male lamb from
each household is to be brought inside and on the fourteenth day of the
month it is to be slaughtered at twilight.
• Blood from the lamb is to be applied using a hyssop brush to the
doorposts and lintels of each home.
• God will see the blood on each home and the destroyer will pass over.
• The Passover lamb is to be roasted over a fire with unleavened bread and
bitter herbs.
• It is to be eaten quickly with belts tightened, sandals on the feet, and
staff in hand.
• At midnight every firstborn Egyptian, from the prince to the firstborn
calves is killed.
• There was not an Egyptian house without someone dead.
• Pharaoh and the Egyptians have had enough and tell the Israelites to
leave.
• The Israelites leave so quickly that their bread doesn’t rise in the oven
and they “plunder” the Egyptians of all their gold and silver.
• After 430 years in Egypt, the Israelites leave with 600,000 men, not
counting the women and children.
• God tells the Israelites how to include other peoples in the Passover
ceremony—they must be circumcised.

Jesus in the Old Testament

• The Passover lamb is a picture of Jesus, the perfect, spotless Lamb of
God who died for the sins of the world. We are rescued and redeemed by
having His blood applied to our hearts by faith.

• In 1 Corinthians 5 the Apostle Paul applies the Passover picture to Jesus
and His salvation.