Leviticus 12-13

?#?OTin52? Our reading today is Leviticus, chapters 12-13. I have also
included the summary of chapter 11 which I mistakenly left out yesterday.

XI. Dietary or Food Laws (Leviticus 11).

• The purpose of food (kosher) laws is to make a distinction between what
is clean and unclean, by what can be eaten and what cannot be eaten in
order to set apart God’s people.
• The first law is that the Israelites can eat any land animal that is
cloven-footed ( split hoofs) and chews its cud – lit. “throwing up what was
swallowed.” An animal takes a bite of some grass or hay, chews for a bit,
swallows, throws it all up and starts chewing it again.
• Cattle, goats and sheep have split hooves and chew their cud.
• The camel and rock badger chews its cud but does not have split hooves.
• Pigs have split feet but they don’t chew their cud.
• The only sea life that can be eaten must have fins and scales.
• Besides not being allowed to eat ritually unclean animals, an Israelite
is not supposed to touch the carcass of a dead animal.
• The rest of chapter 11 draws dividing lines between other types of
animals in three categories: birds, winged insects, and swarming things.
• The food laws go into detail about carcass touching and what to do with
pots that come in contact with certain carcasses.
• The Hebrew of verse 45 tells the Israelites to keep the food laws because
“I am the Lord, who brought you up (lit. ‘vomited you up’) out of the land
of Egypt.” The land of Egypt was considered unclean, and God “vomited”
Israel out of it.

XII. Ceremonial Purity: Childbirth (Leviticus 12).

• When a woman gives birth she is unclean.
• This uncleanness is not a moral issue but ritual. She can’t go to the
Tabernacle or touch anything that’s holy.
• If the baby is a girl, the mother is unclean for 14 days and her
purification is not over for another 66 days.
• If the baby is a boy, she is unclean for 7 days and her purification is
not over for another 33 days.
• A baby boy is to be circumcised on the eighth day.
• When her time of purification is over, the mother is to offer a burnt
offering and a sin offering.

XIII. Ceremonial Purity: Skin Diseases (Leviticus 13).

• Warning: a long chapter on skin diseases!
• The purpose of this chapter is to help the Israelites to identify
troublesome skin conditions that could wreak havoc in the camp.
• In the ancient world the word leprosy referred to a wide range of skin
infections (i.e. scaly flakes, itchy blotches, rashes, bald spots, open
sores – should we go on?).
• Instructions are given for priests (who also served as Israel’s health
officers) for determining whether a person has a skin disease that makes
someone unclean. (Let me just say that I’m glad this did not carry over to
pastors today!).
• If a person does have a skin disease, the priest was instruct the person
to stay home for seven days or force the individual to tear his or her
clothes and declare, “Unclean! Unclean!”
• The chapter ends with instructions for garments that get moldy – either
cut the bad spot out of if it spreads or returns burn your garments.

Jesus in the Old Testament

• Under the New Covenant in Jesus, the concept of ritual cleanness is no
longer in force while we are to be morally pure in every area of life as a
means of reflecting Jesus.
• In His earthly ministry, Jesus healed a leper with the touch of His hand.
It pointed to a much deeper cleansing of sin accomplished by His death for

Leviticus 9-10

?#?OTin52? Our reading today is Leviticus, chapters 9-10:

IX. The Priests Begin their Ministry (Leviticus 9).

• When last we left Aaron and his sons, they were completing their
seven-day ordination service.
• On the eighth day, they perform their first official sacrifices as
Israel’s priests.
• They offer burnt and sin offerings to make atonement for themselves and
for the people.
• They also offer a peace and grain grain offering, to commemorate the
sacred contract between God and His people.
• They were to do all of this so that the glory of God may appear.
• When Aaron completed the inaugural sacrifices, he and Moses bless the
people and the glory of God appeared to all the people.
• Everyone watched as fire from the altar consumed the burnt offerings.

X. The Disobedience of Nadab and Abihu (Leviticus 10).

• The inauguration of Aaron and his sons into the priesthood takes an
unfortunate turn.
• Nadab and Abihu, Aaron’s two oldest sons, offer “strange fire” that isn’t
in keeping with God’s instructions.
• They used unauthorized coals of fire. In Hebrew, Nadab and Abihu take
“coals from an outside place.”
• After nine chapters emphasizing the importance of following God’s
explicit commands, Aaron’s sons are destroyed by God.
• Aaron held his tongue.
• Their bodies are ordered to be removed from the camp with very careful
• God commands the priests to abstain from wine or fermented drink before
entering the tent of meeting.
• Moses directs Aaron and Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron’s remaining sons, to
continue with the remaining sacrifices.
• Aaron’s sons refuse to eat the goat meat from the sin offering.
• Moses is upset that they don’t appear to be following his orders.
• An argument erupts between Moses and Aaron.
• Aaron defended his actions: the corpses of Nadab and Abihu had made the
Tabernacle unclean.
• Eating sacrificed meat in a polluted Tabernacle, without additional
cleansing, could have sparked more fatal fire.

Jesus in the Old Testament

• God displays His glory as the ministry of the Tabernacle is commenced.
The ultimate demonstration of God’s glory is when He sent His Son to dwell
among us.
• As in the case of Aaron’s son, God’s leaders are held to a high standard
so that they are to lean into Jesus for strength and help as our Great High

Leviticus 7-8

?#?OTin52? Our reading today is Leviticus, chapters 7-8,

VII. The Laws of the Guilt and Peace Offerings (Leviticus 7).

• The procedure for the guilt offering involved burning up all of its fat,
kidneys and liver. The fat cannot be eaten.
• The rest can be eaten by the priest who offers it.
• The grain offering who also eaten by the priests who bakes it.
• A mixed grain offering is shared equitably among the priests.
• Peace offerings can be made for various reasons: giving thanks, making a
vow, or giving a contribution to the priests.
• The priest who offers the peace offering can eat it.
• The offering must be eaten on the day of the sacrifice or the next day.
• Eating leftover sacrifice on the third day is ‘tamei’ – it is tainted or
considered unclean.
• God further instructs Moses that the fat from animals that die on their
own or are killed by other animals can be used for other purposes but not
for eating.
• The priests receive the breast and right shoulder meat from every peace

II. The Ordination of Israel’s Priests (Exodus 8).

• The priesthood of Israel is set apart to present offerings to the Lord
for the people’s atonement.
• Moses calls for the nation to assemble before the Tent of Meeting.
• He gathers Aaron and his sons together for their inauguration as priests.
• Moses puts on Aaron the attire of the high priest with the ephod–a belt
adorned with gold design, the breast-plate– adorned with the twelve gems of
the Urim and Thummim, and places a holy crown on his head.
• He anoints the Tabernacle and its furnishings, and then anoints Aaron’s
head with oil.
• Moses then clothes Aaron’s sons with their priestly garments.
• Their investiture is followed by a bull, and then the offering of the
first ram.
• A second ram is then offered, the ram of ordination, and Moses takes
blood from the ram and places it on Aaron’s right ear lobe, right hand, and
right big toe.
• He then follows the same procedure with Aaron’s sons.
• Moses then prepares the ordination offering and waves it before the Lord.
• Then the priestly garments, while worn by the priests, are consecrated
with oil and blood.
• After atonement is made for Aaron and his sons, they remain at the
entrance to the Tent of Meeting for seven days.

Jesus in the Old Testament

• Israel needed human mediators or priests but Jesus is the ultimate holy
priestly Mediator who saves us and brings us into relationship with Himself
(cf. 1 Timothy 2:4-5; Hebrews 7:25).
• The human priests of Israel were sinful and needed to be atoned for their
sins. Jesus, our High Priest, was entirely without sin and never needed
• Jesus offered Himself as the perfect atoning sacrifice.


Come join us for worship this Sunday.

Pastor Paul’s message will continue in *The Sent Church* series
with “Praying in a Crisis.”

The passage will be Acts 12:1-24

Service times are 9 and 11 am.

Leviticus 4-6

?#?OTin52? Our reading today is Leviticus, chapters 4-6:

IV. The Sin Offering (Leviticus 4).

• The sin offering is the offering of atonement for sins committed in
ignorance and then the offense is made known.
• In a sin offering the lifeblood of an animal is offered as atonement and
cleansing of sin.
• God gives guidelines and the sacrificial animal offered for priests
(unblemished bull), the whole congregation (bull), a leader (a male goat),
or when an individual sins (unblemished female goat or an unblemished
female lamb).
• Depending on the person the he priest dips his finger in blood and
sprinkles it seven times in front of the veil, at entrance to the
• The priest also pours the animal’s blood on the base of the sacrificial
altar in the Tabernacle courtyard and the altar of incense inside.
• In the case of a common person sinning unintentionally, the priest lay
his hands on the head of the animal being offered for atonement.

V. Other Categories for the Sin Offering and the Guilt Offering (Leviticus

• Other reasons for the sin offering (a female goat of lamb, or birds or a
tenth of an ephah of fine flour for those who are poor): failure to testify
in a legal matter; touching an unclean person or animal carcass; or,
delaying or breaking an oath do something.
• In 5:14 God introduces the Guilt Offering.

VI. The Guilt Offering and Restitution and the Priestly Regulations for
Offerings (Leviticus 6).

• The Guilt Offering (the fifth type of offering) also includes restitution
or compensation for the victim of the offense.
• Examples requiring the guilt offering include:
o Breaking any of the Lord’s commandments like taking the Lord’s name
in vain.
o Unscrupulous financial dealings.
o Theft.
o Lying.
• The offender is to offer the appropriate sacrifice and restitution,
usually a ram without blemish, full payment of the amount lost, along with
additional compensation.
• Beginning in verse 8 the focus is on the priest and how the offering is
to be performed: the handling of the various offerings, distributing the
food parts to the other priests, and how to dispose of the remains.
• The timing of the burnt offering here is different from the burnt
offering in chapter 1.
• The first burnt offering is voluntary and can be made at any time.
• The burnt offering in chapter 6 is required to be made every

Jesus in the Old Testament

• The sin offering prefigures Jesus’ sacrificial death for us who, by the
shedding of Hid blood, cleanses us from all our sins.

Exodus 40 and Leviticus 1-3

?#?OTin52? Our reading today is Exodus 40 and Leviticus, chapters 1-3:

XL. God’s Presence Fills the Tabernacle (Exodus 40).

• On the first day of the first month (Rosh Hashanah – “head of the year”)
Moses assembles the Tabernacle step by step, arranges it, piece by piece,
and anoints all the parts, along with Aaron and his sons as priests,
according to God’s order. Notice the repeated, “you shall …”
• Moses starts with the Tent of Meeting and its furnishings (vv. 16-28).
• He works outward toward the courtyard fence (vv. 29-33).
• The passage is filled with suspense, anticipating God’s dwelling with His
• When Moses’ assembly is completed, God covers the Tent of Meeting with a
cloud and with the fire of His presence (vv. 34-38).
• God’s glory so filled the Tabernacle that Moses was unable to enter it!
• The Hebrew word in v. 35 is shekinah or “the abiding presence of God.”

The Book of Leviticus: God orders the religious life of His covenant people.

I. Burnt Offerings (Leviticus 1).

• A helpful way to read this section is to imagine participating in the
• The people were required to bring animals for slaughter and burning on
the altar.
• In verse 2 the words, “any one,” is adam.
• The word “offering” means “drawing near” or “approach”
• The offering was meant to be the best of the flock. It was meant to cost
the worshipper something.
• The priests were to follow the required steps for sacrifice.
• The burnt offering takes place on the north side of the altar.
• If someone can’t afford to offer cattle, they can sacrifice a goat, or a
couple of birds (i.e. turtledoves or pigeons).
• The purpose of the burnt offering was to make atonement, meaning covering.

II. Grain Offerings (Leviticus 2).

• The grain offering was meant to be the best of the crop and presented as
toasted grains or flour cakes without any leaven.
• The grain offering requires a helping of salt, a preservative that
symbolizes the covenant between God and His people.
• The grain offering was offered to the Lord.

III. Peace Offerings (Leviticus 3).

• The word is the shelamim offering, from the Hebrew root sh-l-m, which
gives us shalom or peace.
• God promises to keep the Israelites safe and give them fertile livestock,
and they acknowledge God in gratitude for His provision.
• While the burnt offering allows only the sacrifice of males (1:3, 3:1),
both male and female animals are allowed for a peace offering.
• The only parts of the animal that get sacrificed in the peace offering
are the kidneys, the lobe on the liver, and certain kinds of fat.
• They were not to eat any fat or blood but the meat became a festive meal.
• The peace offering was a fellowship meal signifying their reconciliation
with God.

Jesus in the Old Testament

• God’s presence dwelt among His people in the Tent of Meeting. When the
Word became flesh, Jesus tabernacled or pitched His tent among us.
• Jesus is the ultimate blameless sacrifice presented for us (cf. 1 Peter
• Jesus’ sacrifice is atoning and we receive His atonement through His

Exodus 38-39

?#?OTin52? Our reading today is Exodus, chapters 38-39:

XXXVIII. Outside the Tabernacle (Exodus 38).

• Everything outside the Tabernacle was put together according to God’s
precise design:
• The Bronze Altar with its bronze utensils (vv. 1-7)
• The Bronze Basin (v. 8), placed between the altar of burnt offerings and
the entrance into the Tent of Meeting where Aaron and his sons washed their
hands and feet before entering.
• Reference is given regarding basin and its stand Bezalel made from the
mirrors of a group of women who served at the entrance to the Tent of
Meeting. The donation of their mirrors was a gesture worthy of special
attention. (The only other reference in the OT to the women who ministered
before the Tent of Meeting is 1 Samuel 2:22 and the judgment that came upon
Eli’s sons).
• The making of the court (vv. 9-20).
• The final and extraordinary inventory of all the materials used in the
construction of the Tabernacle (vv. 21-31).

XXXIX. The Priestly Garments and the Presentation of the Tabernacle to
Moses (Exodus 39).

• The making of the priestly garments (vv. 1-31).
• The finished Tabernacle and all its furnishings along with the priestly
garments were completed (vv. 32-43).
• Nine times the phrase, “as the Lord had commanded,” or “according to all
that the Lord had commanded” is used in this chapter.
• The presentation of the whole project to Moses for his blessing.

Exodus 36-37

?#?OTin52? Our reading today is Exodus, chapters 36-37:

XXXVI. The Beautiful House of God (Exodus 36).

• Bezalel and Oholiab begin using the skill and intelligence God gave them
to build the Tabernacle.
• Other artists in making the curtains (vv. 8-19) frame (vv. 20-34) and
veils (vv. 35-38) were also stirred to do the work.
• The Israelites brought more than enough in their freewill offerings each
• The people were so generous that Moses had to ask them to stop.
• The construction of the Tabernacle was based on God’s design and made
possible by the people’s provision.

XXXVII. Inside the Tabernacle (Exodus 37).

• Bezalel constructs everything inside the Tabernacle according to God’s
precise design:
• The Ark of the Covenant with the cherubim and mercy seat (vv. 1-9).
• The Table for the Bread of Presence (vv. 10-16).
• The Golden Lampstand (vv. 17-24).
• The Altar of Incense (vv. 25-29).

Jesus in the Old Testament

• As we have seen, each piece of furniture inside the Tabernacle points to
Jesus and the ultimate forgiveness, daily provision and access we find in

Exodus 34-35

?#?OTin52? Our reading today is Exodus, chapters 34-35:

XXXIV. God Renews His Covenant and Proclaims His Name to Moses (Exodus 34).

• The stone tablets Moses smashed need to be replaced.
• God instructs Moses to cut two new tablets and then meet Him on Mt. Sinai
• Moses ascends the mountain for another forty days and forty nights.
• YHWH descends in a cloud and proclaims the depth of His gracious name
(vv. 5-9).
• God renews His covenant with Moses and tells him that He will drive the
Canaanites out of the land before them.
• When Moses comes down from the mountain, his face is reflecting the glory
of God (vv. 29-35).
• Moses places a veil over His face so that people will not see the
reflected glory of God fade.

XXXV. Construction of the Tabernacle Begins (Exodus 35).

• The Israelites are ready to construct the Tabernacle.
• Chapters 35-39 are a basically a repetition of chapters 25-31. The
repetition, and in some cases the exact verbatim, underscore the importance
God places on follow His instructions exactly.
• The construction begins with a freewill offering as the Israelites bring
the required materials: gold, silver, bronze, blue, purple, scarlet, woods,
gems, oil, spices, and animal skins.
• Some Israelites offer their skill and artisanship.
• Bezalel and Oholiab are set apart for their service.

Jesus in the Old Testament

• As God renews His covenant, His standard doesn’t change – a standard that
no one can meet but one which Jesus fulfilled perfectly.
• While the glory of God reflected on Moses’ face faded, God’s glory
radiates permanently in the face of Jesus.

Exodus 31-33

?#?OTin52? Our reading today is Exodus, chapters 31-33:

XXXI. The Calling of the Tabernacle Craftsmen (Exodus 31).

• God announces to Moses on Mt. Sinai the calling of Bezalel Tribe of
Judah) and Oholiab (Tribe of Dan), the primary contractors for building the
• These Spirit-filled men are extremely gifted, skilled and artistic.
• God also gave the ability to able men to build the furnishings of the
Tabernacle, the weaving of all priestly garments, and the preparation of
oil and incense for its use in the Holy Place.
• The observance of the weekly Sabbath (vv. 12-18).
• The Sabbath is a solemn and holy day of rest to the Lord for it is a
memorial to God’s power and example.
• God gives Moses the two tablets of the Ten Commandments, written with His

XXXII. The Worship of the Golden Calf and Its Consequences (Exodus 32).

• While Moses was on the mountain speaking with God for forty days the
Israelites became restless.
• Ironically, Moses starts his descent down the mountain at the very moment
the Israelites surmise that he is dead.
• They approach Aaron and appeal to him to make gods for them to worship.
• Aaron doesn’t hesitate and tells the Israelites to bring him their gold
and from its casts a giant golden calf, strikingly similar to the images in
Egypt. The Israelites then make revelry around it.
• The contrast could not have been more stark – between worship that God
commanded and regulated and idolatry that man manufactured. This is a clear
violation of the first commandment.
• The worship of the golden calf involved blasphemy, idolatry, syncretism
(worship of images with burnt offerings and sacrifices).
• God’s wrath was kindled and He threatens to destroy the Israelites and
start over with Moses.
• Moses intercedes for the Israelites on the basis of the covenant He
established with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (vv. 7-14).
• Joshua is with Moses as he descends the mountain and he perceived the
noise from the camp was a war cry.
• Moses knows otherwise, and he takes the tablets written by God and
smashes them in anger.
• He burns the calf, grinds it up into powder, mixes the gold-dust with
water, and forces the Israelites to drink it.
• Moses confronts Aaron who blames the people with a lame excuse, in effect
saying: “I threw their gold into the fire, and out came this calf!”
• Moses asks the people, “Who is on the Lord’s side?” drawing a line in the
sand. The Levites (the tribe of Levi) ally with Moses and are appointed to
execute God’s vengeance (vv. 25-29).
• About 3,000 Israelites are put to death by the Levites, who are then
appointed to serve the Lord.
• Moses pleads the people’s case with God, even offering his own life for
their sin.
• God vows to hold each person responsible for what they have done but
continue to lead Moses.
• God sends a plague down on the Israelites for their disobedience.

XXXIII. Moses Pleads His Case before God and Makes an Audacious Request
(Exodus 33).

• God tells Moses that He can no longer accompany him into the land for
somewhere along the way He would consume this stiff-necked people (vv. 1-3).
• Moses informs the Israelites and the people mourn for their sin (vv. 4-6).
• God visits Moses in the Tent of Meeting and speaks to him as friend to
friend. Verses 12-23 records this famous and amazing dialogue between God
and Moses.
• Moses effectively argues that unless God accompanies His people they
might as well not go at all.
• Moses then asks God for the privilege of seeing His glory.
• God condescends and agrees to show Moses, not His face which no one can
see and live, but the backside of His glory.

Jesus in the Old Testament

• Moses, in his finest hour, offers himself as an atonement for the
people’s sins, but Jesus is the One (and the only One) who could and did
make atonement for us because He alone is without sin.
• While the sin of the Israelites placed in jeopardy the presence of God,
Jesus promises to always be with us (cf. Matthew 29:20).